Congo Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Several socio-political discussions, including ethnography, geography, and literacy are necessary for an appreciation of the press in the Republic of the Congo (the Congo). The Congo formed part of French Equatorial Africa (FEA) until its independence from France in 1960.

Cook Islands Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

The Cook Islands, named after the British naval captain who first sighted them in 1770, are located in the south Pacific Ocean, between Hawaii and New Zealand.

Costa Rica Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Costa Rica is a nation of 3.7 million people that boasts a long history of democracy, no army, and relatively peaceful political development, which is in stark contrast with the war-torn legacies of most of its Central American neighbors. Long thought a stellar democracy wherein the press basked in unlimited freedom, the murder of a popular radio journalist in 2001 revealed a darker side to the country that has often been referred to as the Switzerland of Central America.

Côte d'Ivoire Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Located in Western Africa, Côte d'Ivoire Republic (La République de Côte d'Ivoire, French) borders the North Atlantic Ocean, Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and the Gulf of Guinea. It is a little larger than the state of New Mexico.

Croatia Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the state and future of the Croatia's media can be viewed in the context of two defining events. The first was the end, in the early 1990s, of the socialist period of government that lasted 45 years following the end of World War II.

Cuba Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

The press situation in Cuba ranks as one of the most complicated in the world due to the political and physical distribution of the Cuban people. Since the victory of the Castro-led forces in 1959, a significant Cuban exile community has flourished in the United States, especially in South Florida.

Cyprus Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

The dual media systems on the island of Cyprus, situated south of Turkey, reflect the contentious ethnic divisions between its Greek and Turk constituencies. The press situation is active and politically driven, in a nation with a high rate of literacy.

The Czech Republic Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Since the dissolution of the Soviet Bloc in 1989, the Czech Republic has become a crossroad for new ideas and lively journalism. Newspapers which are both regional and national appear in a number of languages including Czech, English, German, and Russian.

Democratic Congo Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

A nominal republic with a history of autocratic leadership, the Democratic Congo has kept its media under iron-fisted government control. In the cities, jailing of non-conformist journalists continued into 2002.

Denmark Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

The Kingdom of Denmark comprises the North Sea archipelago and islands of continental Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. Continental Denmark has coastlines totaling 7,400 kilometers (4,600 miles) and a land border with Germany of only 67.7 kilometers (42 miles).

Djibouti Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Despite an urbanized context that might be expected to foster a thriving press, media activity is in fact not extensive in the tiny Republic of Djibouti—Républic de Djibouti (French), Jumhuriyah Djibouti (Arabic)— formerly French Somaliland. Constraining influences are a low literacy rate, little available advanced education, high unemployment, and the ongoing historical patterns of a socially and politically closed society.

Dominica Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

In the fourteenth century, Carib settlers called the island "Waitikubuli," which means "tall is her body." But the name that has stood the test of time is Dominica, granted by Christopher Columbus in 1493 to commemorate the Sunday on which he first sighted its shores.

Dominican Republic Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

The Dominican Republic, a former Spanish colony, occupies the eastern two-thirds of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, which is located west of Puerto Rico and southeast of Cuba in the Greater Antilles. The Dominican Republic has an area of 48,730 sq.

East Timor Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

East Timor—or Timor Loro Sa'e—became a nation on May 20, 2002, as the world watched. The celebration of independence ended four centuries of Portuguese colonial rule, 24 years of Indonesian occupation, and more than two years of interim rule by the United Nations.

Ecuador Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Named for its proximity to the Equator, La República de Ecuador (The Republic of Ecuador) is located in the northwest part of South America, bordering Colombia, Peru, and the Pacific Ocean. Originally part of the federation known as La República de Gran Colombia which gained independence from Spain in 1822, Ecuador became a separate country in 1830.

Egypt Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Egypt is one of the most pivotal of the nations of the western nations called the Middle East, which is actually an incorrect term, but is more popularly recognized by journalists and the media. It is pivotal because it is in the heart of a realm that extends over 6,000 miles longitudinally and 4,000 miles in latitude.

El Salvador Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

El Salvador had an estimated population as of 2002 of over 6 million, a higher population density than India, and a gross national product (GNP) of US$938 per capita. The country experienced a terrible civil war during the 1980s and the early 1990s; endured death squads that killed human rights advocates; felt population pressures; and survived earthquakes, hurricane Mitch, and the denigration of the natural environment.

Equatorial Guinea Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

In Equatorial Guinea, a limited number of mostly government-controlled media outlets operate in Spanish, French, and local dialects from bases in the island capital, Malabo (Bioko), and the mainland city of Bata (Rio Muni).

Eritrea Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Eritrea is Africa's latest nation to gain its independence from Ethiopia's 40 years of occupation. After a long, drawn-out military conflict between the two states, Eritreans won their independence on May 24, 1993.

Estonia Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

The pre-history of Estonia can be dated to 8000 BC when the oldest traces of human inhabitants were found, but the ethnic origins of the first settlers are unknown. By the third millennium BC, the settlers were Finno-Ugrians who migrated from the east, and Baltic tribes who came from the south.

Ethiopia Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Political context Virtually all observers of Ethiopian history and politics agree that current political events cannot be isolated from past history. The multiplicity of the Ethiopian people, and its links to ancient history and culture are reflected in traditions still very much alive today.

Falkland Islands Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers

Although the Falkland Islands lies east of southern Argentina in the South Atlantic Ocean, it has been claimed by the French, the British, and the Spanish.