First settled by the French in the early seventeenth century, the two islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, located in the North Atlantic Ocean south of Canada's Newfoundland, represent the last vestige of France's North American empire, which once stretched as far south as Louisiana. It is a self-governing territorial collectivity of France and, as such, the official language is French.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, located in the Caribbean Sea north of Trinidad and Tobago, is a study in contrasts. The main island, Saint Vincent, is rugged with volcanic mountains and is relatively underdeveloped, while the 30 islands and cays that comprise the Grena-dines boast bare coral reefs and cater to well-heeled tourists and yachters.
Samoa, a group of nine volcanic islands in the South Pacific Ocean midway between Hawaii and New Zealand, was known as Western Samoa until 1997. Formerly governed by Germany, New Zealand took over its administration at the outset of World War II.
The Republic of San Marino, the world's smallest republic and Europe's oldest state, is situated entirely within Italy's borders. There are five daily newspapers within the country's total area of 61.2 square kilometers.
São Tomé and Príncipe is a small-island nation, made up of two main islands and several small islets. It is located off the western coast of Africa, on the Gulf of Guinea, 125 miles off the coast of Gabon.
A country of significant religious orientation and possessing one-fourth of the world's oil reserves, Saudi Arabia (Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah) wields substantial political influence. As one of the Gulf States, it is bordered to the north by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait, to the south by Yemen and Qatar, and to the southeast by the UAE, Bahrain, and Qatar.
The westernmost country of Africa, Senegal occupies 531 km of North Atlantic coastline between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania. It borders Mali, the Gambia and Guinea.
Yugoslavia was born the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes on December 1, 1918. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia disintegrated into the independent constituent republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, and Yugoslavia in 1991.
The Seychelles, located in the Indian Ocean northeast of Madagascar, served as a home base for pirates in the early seventeenth century. Claimed by France in 1754, in 1770 the first boats of settlers began to arrive.
The last decade of the twentieth century was the most difficult period for the press in Sierra Leone. This period was also characterized by deteriorating economic conditions, military coups d'état, violent political upheavals, and widespread illiteracy (approximately 70 percent).
The Republic of Singapore consists of a 240-square-mile island and several other surrounding smaller ones located in Southeast Asia. The main island (whose territory also includes some land reclaimed from the sea) is connected to Johor, the southernmost state of peninsular Malaysia, by a causeway.
A member of the European Union, Slovakia— officially the Slovak Republic—broke from Czechoslovakia in 1993 to become an independent republic. Originally settled by Illyrian, Celtic, and Germanic peoples, Slovakia was part of Great Moravia in the ninth century, then Hungary in the eleventh century.
Slovenia is a democratic state in the former Yugoslavia that has fostered a liberal and diverse press. Compared to neighbors to the south, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Slovenian press has for centuries been fairly uncensored and unrestricted by government.
The Solomon Islands is located in the South Pacific, east of Papua New Guinea. Far from being remote, the islands lie along the sea routes of the South Pacific Ocean, the Solomon Sea and the Coral Sea, a strategic position bitterly fought over in World War II.
Most press activity in Somalia is centered in Mogadishu. Newspapers and magazines are published in English, Somali, and Italian.
South Korea is, by all measures, a media-rich country. As of 2002, this country of over forty-seven million people had as many as 116 daily newspapers, with the top three of its national dailies boasting circulation of more than two million copies each.
South Africa, which covers 470,462 square miles of the southern tip of the African continent, is home to more than 43 million people. It is bordered by Namibia in the northwest, Zimbabwe and Botswana in the north, Mozambique in the northeast, Swaziland in the east, and the Indian and Atlantic oceans in the south, southeast, and southwest.
As of the early 2000s, the press of Spain, like its contemporary culture and politics, is coming out of a period of transition. Salient characteristics of this press are low circulation and equally low per capita readership, at least in comparison to presses in other modern European countries.
The press and media are fairly free in this island nation despite a deadly war between the Sinhalese-dominated government and the separatist Tamils fighting under the aegis of the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). Since the mid-1970s, when the conflict started, there have been times of severe media censorship affecting the course of the war.
In 2002, the Republic of Sudan continued to be embroiled in a civil war—Muslim north versus Christian/ animist south—that began just prior to its independence in 1956. While brief periods of peace and parliamentary rule have resulted in a revived press structure, military flare-ups and revolving dictatorships contribute to a heavily regulated and controlled press.
Suriname is located on the north coast of South America, on the Atlantic Ocean between Guyana and French Guiana. Originally settled by the English around 1650, they gave the region to the Dutch two decades later in exchange for the land that is now New York.
Swaziland is landlocked and almost surrounded by South Africa, with Mozambique to the east. Swaziland's press industry may be characterized as small, struggling, and mostly dominated by the government—a monarchy led by King Mswati III, who has been enthroned since 1986.