Sweden is officially known as the Kingdom of Sweden and is a constitutional monarchy. Located in northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula between Finland and Norway, Sweden is 449,964 square kilometers, about double the size of the United Kingdom.
Switzerland is a land-locked, Central European, Alpine nation that has enjoyed a remarkably long and continuous tradition of independence and political neutrality. The federal structure grants considerable autonomy to the cantons.
In June of 2000, the Syrian Arab Republic (Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah) inaugurated its first new president in years, Bashar al-Assad, son of long-standing president Hafez al-Assad, who had held power since 1970 and the office of president since 1971. Hafez al-Assad died in the same month that his son ascended to office.
Few were aware of Taiwan until 1949, when the victorious Communists on mainland China pushed the Nationalist Government of China across the Strait to Taiwan. Chiang Kai-shek, the well-known Kuomintang (KMT) leader, led nearly two million civilians and military personnel there.
Tajikistan borders China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and Afghanistan on its southern frontier. With a 2001 estimated population of 6,579,000 growing at a 2.1 percent annual rate, 65 percent of its people are ethnic Tajik, about 25 percent are Uzbek, 3.5 percent are Russian, and other groups make up the rest.
Tanzania is one of few countries in sub-Saharan Africa where the press is predominantly presented in the official and national language of the country (which happens to be Kiswahili—hereafter Swahili) where the readership is fully literate in that language. There are reasons for this that are exclusive to Tanzania, as the country has experienced historical events that have not occurred elsewhere.
Thailand, known as Siam until 1932, traces its history back to the thirteenth century to the kingdom of Sukhothai (1257-1378) whose greatest ruler Ramakhamhaeng (1277-1317) united many of the Thai tribes by force of arms, established diplomatic relations with China, and created the Thai alphabet. A series of weak successors and unrest among the vassal states led to the kingdom's surrender (1378) to the more powerful neighboring state of Aytthaya ruled by King U Thong.
Several brief socio-political discussions, including ethnography, geography, and literacy are necessary for an appreciation of the press in Togo. Togo was placed under French administration first as a League of Nations "mandate" then as a United Nations "trust" territory at the end of World War I (WWI).
Tokelau, a group of three low-lying islands in the South Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and New Zealand, is a country in danger. According to a United Nations report, the islands are at risk of disappearing into the ocean if global warming continues to raise sea levels.
Tonga, an archipelago of more than 170 islands in the South Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and New Zealand, is the only remaining Polynesian monarchy. Formerly known as the Friendly Islands, the area united as a single kingdom in 1845 but became a British protectorate in 1900.
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago lies in the Caribbean between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. The two islands came under British rule in the nineteenth century, but gained their independence in 1962.
Like Algeria and Morocco, Tunisia inherited the structure and characteristics of its press from the French. A protectorate within the former French colonial empire of North Africa between 1881 and 1956, Tunisia absorbed much of the cultural and intellectual traditions imposed upon it over the span of three generations.
In 1923 Mustafa Kemal (188l-1938) founded the modern Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti). Later in his life (1934), for his dedicated service to the state and people of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal was honored with the designation Atatürk (Father Turk) by the Grand National Assembly.
Turkmenistan borders both Iran and Afghanistan on the south and the Caspian Sea on the west, with a total area of 188,456 sq. miles.
The Turks and Caicos Islands includes 30 islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Bahamas and north of Haiti. The islands were settled in the late 1600s by Bermudians, who mined the islands for salt.
Tuvalu is a scattered group of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and Australia. Formerly a British colony, Tuvalu declared independence in 1978.
Uganda is a landlocked East African country in the Great Lakes region in central Africa. With a population of almost 24 million, Uganda is a country with 52 languages spoken by four major people groups: the Bantu, Nilotics, Nilo-Hamitics, and those of Sudanese origin.
Publishing in Ukraine started in 1574 when the first Russian printer I. Federov printed Azbuka (The Primer) in the city of Lviv.
Previously known as the Trucial States, The United Arab Emirates (Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidah or UAE) is located just north of Oman and is bordered on the east by the Arabian Sea and on the west by Saudi Arabia. The UAE was formed in 1971 upon gaining its independence from Great Britain; in 1972 the final emirate (imarah) joined creating the current composition of the country.
The United Kingdom possesses one of the most universally respected and widely read national presses. According to Brian McNair (1999), 80 percent of adults regularly read at least one national daily newspaper (not necessarily every day), and 75 percent read a Sunday edition.
The press in the United States evolved through a long history of freedom and openness, and it operated at the beginning of the twenty-first century within one of the richest and most powerful societies in the world. Press freedom was a crucial factor in the formation of the American republic, and strict protections for the press were added to the United States Constitution just two years after it was ratified.
Generally speaking, Uruguayans enjoy a higher standard of living than people in most other Latin American countries. According to the tenth edition of Global Studies: Latin America, in the early 2000s, Uruguay had the third highest per capita income (US$8,500) in South America after Argentina and Chile.